Author Archives: Caroline

Hong Kong Divorce: A Day In The Life – Lauren Ng, Family Law Trainee

In this series, we follow along individuals who are paving a path in the Family Law community in Hong Kong.

Today, we are speaking with Lauren Ng, family law trainee at Oldham, Li & Nie. In this article, we delve into Lauren’s foray into the Family Law arena and what it takes to survive in what is a very personal, human-focused area of law.

Lauren, tell the Hong Kong Divorce community how you started out in your career. Where did you study and what did you study in order to get to be a “trainee” in the legal field?

I did my Bachelor of Laws degree at the Bristol University in UK. I then did my Postgraduate Certificate in Laws at Hong Kong University which is a programme all prospective lawyers have to take in order to qualify in Hong Kong.

Did you always know you wanted to be a lawyer?

When I was young I actually wanted to be a zoologist or do something related to animals but I quickly realized that this was not a feasible career in Hong Kong. It was only in secondary school when I started thinking about university that I began considering law as a career option.

What made you decide you wanted to create a path for yourself in family law in particular?

While I was at Bristol University, I took the Family Law elective and the International Child Law elective which was taught very passionately by Professor Judith Mason and this really got me interested in this area of the law.

As a trainee, can you tell me what a typical day looks like and the type of work that keeps you busy each day?

A typical day for me would involve drafting various documents such as letters to the opposing side or affidavits. I would also attend client meetings with a partner where my main role would be to take notes and draft follow up emails to the client.

As of the publication of this article, you are now titled “paralegal” – Can you tell us the progression of the trainee contract, how long it lasts for and the steps after that in order to become an associate solicitor?

All trainees have to complete a 2 year training contract before they can apply to be admitted in Hong Kong to become an associate solicitor. I am currently a paralegal as I am in the interim period where I have just completed my training contract but am waiting to be admitted.

What difference/contribution do you hope to make in the family law community in Hong Kong?

Divorce is always a difficult process and I hope that I am able to contribute by helping our clients to the best of my ability and to achieve the best possible outcome for them.

Do you have any advice for other aspiring family law solicitor hopefuls?

Just to always be open to the opportunities out there and be willing to put in the hard work!


Thank you again for taking the time to speak with me Lauren.  We wish you all the best of luck in your future and we know you’ll make a wonderful mark in the family law community in Hong Kong!

Managing Emotions During The Divorce Process

Anger, sadness, guilt, anxiety, grief and loss are just some of the various emotions that you may be experiencing as a result of your divorce. Due to this vortex of emotions, it is not uncommon for you to act in an uncharacteristic manner.

Acknowledging and being aware of your feelings during the divorce process is the first step in managing your emotions. It is the management of your emotions that will help you overcome some of the more difficult aspects of your divorce, in addition to building a foundation of peace and harmony with your former spouse as many of you will need to co-parent throughout your lifetime.

While many challenging issues must be addressed with the assistance of solicitors and the Family Law courts, many issues couples face can be resolved without the assistance of professionals and should be considered before calling professionals for help.  It should be noted that calling your solicitor every time you experience a stressful event is extremely costly and does not lay a foundation for problem solving once the divorce is complete. That is why it is important for individuals to think creatively and with an open mind about how to resolve issues on their own so that your well-earned money can be used for a useful purpose rather than towards solicitor fees and costs.

Managing Emotions During The Divorce Process 1

Here are some practical applications on how to manage emotions during the divorce process in hopes that it will ease the long and difficult divorce process.

  1. Flexible Thinking:  Flexible thinking means that you do not automatically reject what your former spouse may say when new ideas are discussed or decisions need to be made. This includes having the ability to think outside of the box and coming up with alternative proposals for problem solving rather than just fighting for your first and only idea.
  2. Check Yourself:  It is always important to check yourself and your reactions to your spouse. Are you saying no because you are angry and upset over what your spouse did to you in the relationship? Are you saying no to spite your spouse? Or are you making decisions based on the situation at hand and what is best for you and your family going forward? Ask these questions before you respond to your spouse. When you make decisions that are born out of a rational and calm thought-process, you may find that you are making better decisions.
  3. Focus on the Big Picture:  Look at the big picture and write your goals down on paper so that you can keep track of what you are hoping to accomplish at the end of your divorce and beyond. For example, if your goal is to be cost conscious, you may be inclined to take steps to reduce solicitor fees such as mediation versus litigation. Mediation will require you to be more willing to compromise rather than leave all decisions up to the Family Court.  If your goal is to make the divorce a peaceful and as seamless as possible transition for your children, you may think differently about how you react and respond to your spouse in front of your children.

With all of this being said, divorce is a difficult and long process, similar to a marathon.  It is important to allow yourself to indulge in the emotions you are feeling during the process. Be sure to contact trusted family and friends and seek professional assistance from psychological experts if you need a safe place to process through your emotions. Do your best however to keep your emotions out of the divorce process because divorce is essentially a legal business transaction.


Jurisdictional Requirements To File For Divorce In Hong Kong

One of the first questions to consider before filing a Petition for Divorce is whether there is jurisdiction.  Many individuals mistakenly believe that because they were married in Hong Kong, the Hong Kong courts will have jurisdiction to oversee their divorce.  In fact, this is not a true fact and just because you were married in Hong Kong does not automatically give you standing to file for Divorce in Hong Kong.

Jurisdictional Requirements To File For Divorce In Hong Kong 2

Rather than look at where you were married, the Family Court in Hong Kong will look at the circumstances prior to the divorce to determine whether the Family Court has jurisdiction.  To be able to file for Divorce in Hong Kong, the Husband or Wife must fall within one of these categories pursuant to Section 3 of the Matrimonial Causes Ordinance (Cap. 179):

  1. Husband or Wife is domiciled in Hong Kong at the date of the Divorce Petition;
  2. Husband or Wife has been habitually resident in Hong Kong for three (3) years immediately before the Divorce; or
  3. Husband or Wife has a substantial connection with Hong Kong at the date of the Divorce Petition.

You might be asking what does this mean? Well let’s tackle each category because each category has a specific meaning under the law.

Domicle:  Under the Domicile Ordinance (Cap. 596), it states the following:

  1. Every individual has a domicile;
  2. No individual has, at the same time and for the same purpose, more than one domicile.
  3. Where the domicile of an individual is in issue before any court in Hong Kong, that court shall determine the issue in accordance with the law of Hong Kong.

Thus, under the Domicile Ordinance, an individual does not acquire a domicile in Hong Kong unless he/she is lawfully present in Hong Kong and this is presumed to be lawful unless the contrary is proved and he/she intends to make a home there for an indefinite period.   Pursuant to the Domicile Ordinance, the court will look at the country or territory with which an individual is for the time being most closely connected and this is taken as a relevant matter.

Many times, individuals believe that holding a Hong Kong permanent identification card is sufficient to prove that he/she is “domiciled” in Hong Kong however, it is important to note that this alone is not sufficient evidence to support “domicile” in Hong Kong.  In the event that you and your partner cannot establish “domicile” then you will need to consider the other two options of habitual residence or substantial connection.

Habitual Residence:  Habitual residence is where an individual states that he/she voluntarily lives in Hong Kong and has done so three (3) years immediately prior to the filing of the Divorce Petition.  Habitual residence is based on fact and a finding by the Family Court that either spouse was habitually resident or domiciled in, or a national of, the place in which the divorce or legal separation was obtained.

If you and your spouse cannot establish domicile or habitual residence, then the final option to be able to file a Petition for Divorce in Hong Kong is under substantial connection.

Substantial Connection:  Under substantial connection, the Court will look at various factors at the date of the Divorce Petition including the following:

  • Employment in Hong Kong
  • Schooling of your children
  • Place of Matrimonial Home/Place of Family Assets
  • Nature of Stay in Hong Kong

The exercise of determining substantial connection is a question of fact.  The Family Court in Hong Kong will conduct a two-stage enquiry, first determining whether a connection to Hong Kong exists and then determining whether the connection is substantial. It is through this exercise of looking at all relevant factors and circumstances that the Court will then determine whether an individual does in fact have a substantial connection to Hong Kong.

Jurisdictional Requirements To File For Divorce In Hong Kong 3

With that being said, if you are living abroad but come in and out of Hong Kong to do business, you may be tempted to establish substantial connection to Hong Kong for jurisdiction purposes, but it is important to note that the Court will look at all factors and will want to see that your connection to Hong Kong is in fact “real” and not made up in order to establish jurisdiction.  Thus, fly in-fly out individuals will not be able file for a Divorce Petition under substantial connection.

Before you proceed forward with your Divorce Petition, it is important to speak with a solicitor and discuss whether there is jurisdiction in Hong Kong.  Remember, just because you were married in Hong Kong does not allow you an automatic right to file for Divorce in Hong Kong.  Speak to your solicitor about whether you are able to file in Hong Kong and what you need to provide in order to show to the Family Court that Hong Kong is the appropriate jurisdiction.





Clean Break In Divorce

When you divorce in Hong Kong, the term “clean break” may be floated around when discussing ancillary relief or financial provision (or more commonly known as “maintenance” in USA jurisdictions).  So what is a clean break in a divorce? Clean Break simply refers to the distribution of property and/or payment of a lump sum to settle all financial matters, allowing the parties to move forward with a fresh start and without having to be reminded of the breakdown of the marriage by being tied to ongoing payments.

Under section 7 of the Matrimonial Proceedings and Property Ordinance (Cap. 192), the courts in Hong Kong are under a duty “to have regard to the conduct of the parties and all the circumstances of the case” including the following matters:

  • The income, earning capacity, property and other financial resources…;
  • The financial needs, obligations and responsibilities…of the parties…;
  • The standard of living enjoyed by the family before the breakdown of the marriage;
  • The age of each party to the marriage and the duration of the marriage;
  • Any physical or mental disability of either of the parties to the marriage;
  • The contributions made by each of the parties to the welfare of the family…’
  • …the value to either of the parties to the marriage of any benefit (for example, a pension) which, by reason of the dissolution…of the marriage, that party will lose the chance of acquiring.

Clean Break In Divorce 4

In Hong Kong, the courts are not under any duty to consider whether a clean break is appropriate or not but it may be considered.  Generally speaking, a clean break is only an option when there is sufficient monies in a matrimonial pot which would allow the parties to move forward after the payment of one lump sum payment/distribution of property which would settle all financial claims.

In one such case, C v F [2008] HKFLR 1, the parties had a long-term marriage which began in 1965 and a Petition for divorce was filed by the Husband in February 2000.  Throughout the marriage, the Husband’s business had grown to the extent that he valued his assets at approximately HK$36 million with an income of approximately HK$800,000 per month.  The Husband alleged he had considerable debts as he was heavily indebted to the company and to his business partner.  The court ordered a transfer of the former matrimonial home, mortgage free, to the wife and a clean break lump sum to her of HK$15 million.

In YN v NA [2014] HKFLR 517, the court stated that “in big money cases, where the matrimonial assets are sufficient for a clean break to be achieved, a wife with ordinary career prospects is likely to have been compensated by an equal division of the assets and consideration of how the wife’s career might have progressed is unnecessary and should be avoided.”

It should be noted that once a clean break is achieved, a party cannot come back to the court and make an application for maintenance.  This in itself is the benefit and advantage with respect to a clean break: it allows the parties to move on with their lives, without being tied to each other by having to make monthly payments to one party and allows each party to live independently without any burdens of the past.

Clean Break In Divorce 5

If you are going through a divorce, speak to your solicitor about a clean break and whether it’s the right option for you.  If there is a possibility of self-sufficiency, a clean break should be considered an option.  If you are concerned about an immediate clean break, discuss alternative options such as a deferred clean break or even consider nominal maintenance which would then allow you an open door to make an application for periodical payments in the future if need be, but at the same time lift the financial burden on the paying party at the current moment.

Deed of Guardianship: Do You Need One?

The world is struggling with the Covid-19 pandemic and as a result, many individuals are taking into account the legal paperwork needed in the event of a “worst case scenario.”  One legal document that parents may want to consider is a Deed of Guardianship, which sets out guidelines for the caring and well-being of minor children in the event of both parents passing away.

A Deed of Guardianship is a legal document signed by both parents and two witnesses.  It is a document separate from a Will and unlike a Will, a Deed of Guardianship will set out specific guidelines regarding the care of your minor children in the event of passing.  A Deed of Guardianship will set out the minor children’s primary caretakers and can also identify temporary guardians until such time the minor children can be in the care of their permanent guardians.  Many times, individuals will also choose to create a separate document called a Temporary Deed of Guardianship, allowing parents to set out clear guidelines on who will be the children’s temporary guardians to assist in the care of the minor children and set out the intention of the parents pending a permanent move to the permanent guardian’s household.

Deed of Guardianship:  Do You Need One? 6

Deed of Guardianships may be especially important to expatriates living in Hong Kong, especially when family members are not in the same jurisdiction.  For many expatriates, there is a concern that in the event of both parents’ death, the minor children would then be taken into government custody (eg. Social Services).  If this occurs, the government then makes a decision on who will be the appointed guardian.  Any disagreements among potential family member guardians can cause delay and result in the child/children remaining under the care of Social Services.  By having a Deed of Guardianship, the parents can have assurance on how and who  the children will be taken care of should the death of both parents occur.

Deed of Guardianship:  Do You Need One? 7

It is important to speak with a solicitor who can draft a Deed of Guardianship on you and your spouse’s behalf.  You may also want to consider establishing not only the guardians, but also alternate guardians in the event the guardians pass away before your child/children reach the age of 18 (which is the age when the guardianship terminates) or if the appointed guardians is unable or unwilling to act as a guardian for the children.

Deed of Parenting

When you speak with your solicitor, you may also want to consider discussing a Deed of Parenting as well.  What is a Deed of Parenting? A Deed of Parenting simply states that you and your spouse are the legal parents of the children.  This is important in circumstances where you and your spouse are traveling cross-border and there is any question by immigration and customs officers as to the parentage of your children and whether they are with appropriate caretakers.  Many times, customs and immigration officers may question parentage when you and your spouse have a different surname than that of your child/children.

Deed of Guardianship:  Do You Need One? 8

Speak with your solicitor about whether a Deed of Parentage is something to consider, especially as customs and immigration agents are becoming much more critical about travel and the necessity to have essential travel documents requirements.


Spotlight Profile: Kyra Cornwall, Barrister, 1 Hare Court

In this Spotlight Profile, we are talking to Kyra Cornwall, Barrister at 1 Hare Court in London, England.  Kyra specializes in high profile matrimonial matters and has extensive experience working on family law matters involving international jurisdictions including Cayman Islands, Singapore, France, Russia and Hong Kong.

Kyra, it is such a pleasure to speak with you today as I know you run a very busy practice in London, England as Barrister to many high-profile matrimonial clients.  Kyra, this is your first spotlight profile here on Hong Kong Divorce, can you tell our readers more about yourself and the work that you do in the matrimonial arena in London? 

Thank you so much for inviting me. It’s a pleasure to be involved!

I am a Barrister practising at 1 Hare Court, the leading matrimonial finance set in England and Wales. We are based in the heart of legal London, in the middle of the Temple, and specialise in matrimonial finance cases. In my ten years at the Bar, I have developed a practice involving lots of international families, both representing them directly in England and Wales, and offering English advice where proceedings are taking place abroad.

Your practice extends to international jurisdictions.  Can you tell us the link that you have to matrimonial matters here in Hong Kong and your experience working on Hong Kong cases?

In 2017, I was awarded the Pegasus Scholarship by the Inns of Court which enabled me to spend that summer in Hong Kong working firstly at Withers then at Temple Chambers (with Richard Todd QC) and finally sitting in on cases at the Family Court with Her Honour Judge Melloy. The purpose of the scholarship is to enable lawyers to build their international awareness and forge links abroad. I had a particular interest in Hong Kong as my father’s family are from Hong Kong originally, and so had been looking for a way to develop international links on a professional basis as well as personally. That summer certainly gave me the ability to do both of those things.

Over the course of my stay, I was fortunate to meet a huge number of family law practitioners and was given a real insight into a legal system that is so similar to that in which I practise in the UK.  Since returning to the UK, I have maintained a Hong Kong focus to my work from London, continuing to advise on cases which include connections to Hong Kong.

Have you noticed any changes or differences in your practice as a result of Covid-19 and the ongoing pandemic?

Absolutely. When the pandemic hit in London, many practitioners were still working from hard copy papers and almost all court hearings were in person. Suddenly the courts were closed and the legal world had to take a giant leap into the 21st century. Within a matter of weeks, papers were being sent electronically and court hearings were taking place via video platform. Although there were some teething problems at the outset, in my view this has been transformative for life as a lawyer and at the Bar particularly.

Prior to the pandemic, a significant portion of my life was spent travelling to Court, waiting around at Court and travelling home again. Being able to operate remotely has virtually removed this, enabling people to work more efficiently and improving work life balance for practitioners.

Beyond this, for those cases involving parties based internationally or where a party has to travel a lot for work, the advent of video platform hearings has also made it much easier for them to be involved without disrupting their working lives so much.

That’s not to say that there have not been problems: there have been technical glitches along the way and there are difficulties when a party does not have more than one screen available to them, but for the most part I think that the pandemic has forced the legal profession to take positive steps that I hope will remain in place moving forward.

One of your areas of specialty is marital agreements.  Hong Kong follows the United Kingdom landmark decision as seen in Radmacher v Granatino [2010] UKSC 42.  Do you see the law evolving or changing in the future with respect to marital agreements in the UK? 

Since the landmark decision in Radmacher, the courts have had to grapple with the questions of whether the parties had all the information material to their decision(s) to enter into a marital agreement, whether each party intended that the agreement should govern the financial consequences of the marriage ending and whether in all the circumstances this is fair.

Whilst the 2010 decision was followed by the Law Commission report in 2014 which suggested that marital agreements should in essence be upgraded to “Qualifying Nuptial Agreements” – i.e. enforceable contracts – in an attempt to provide more certainty to parties, this has not been made into law.

The current approach in the English courts is to focus on the circumstances in which agreements were reached and where they leave the parties in real terms financially, based on all the circumstances of the case. The recent reported decisions demonstrate a reluctance for the court to uphold agreements which are unfair or which do not meet needs objectively (see for example Brack v Brack [2018] EWCA Civ 2862, Ipekci v McConnell [2019] EWFC 19, IU v OS [2020] EWFC 98). The existence of an agreement does not automatically drive a case into needs territory only; it is one of the factors that weighs in the balance. Equally, a lack of legal advice does not automatically render an agreement unfair (see for example Versteegh v Versteegh [2018] EWCA Civ 1050).

That said, anecdotally I would say that a marital agreement that, for example, excludes sharing or fixes provision, does often have the impact of reducing a party’s claim where otherwise they might achieve more.

In Hong Kong, we see many expatriate couples with questions on whether to file in Hong Kong versus their home countries.  What advice would you give to those individuals who have a connection to both Hong Kong and England & Wales in terms of jurisdiction in regards to their divorce?

If I were to meet with a new client who had the option of getting divorced in both Hong Kong and England & Wales, I would suggest that they take local advice in both jurisdictions before making a decision. Where the outcome is likely to be similar (as between Hong Kong and England & Wales), it is likely to come down to questions of practicality.

There is one change coming in England & Wales however that may benefit one or both parties. No fault divorce is due to be brought in from April 2022 (i.e. being able to get divorced without having to plead any allegations of blame). This will hopefully help to drive down tensions and therefore reduce some of the distress that divorce proceedings can bring.

There’s sometimes an ongoing belief that England is a better forum to divorce because of the higher potential in terms of ancillary relief (finances) and costs.  Is this true or is this simply a misconception?

Both England & Wales and Hong Kong adopt bespoke outcomes on divorce, applying the concept of sharing, and the homemaker is seen to contribute just as much as the breadwinner. On that basis, assets in both jurisdictions are divided on a sharing basis if needs are met. Yes, the numbers are big, but England & Wales and Hong Kong are broadly similar in their approach to outcome.

To that extent, whilst London has the reputation of being generous on divorce, I think that is more due to the system that we apply (i.e. very similar to that of Hong Kong) as compared to the rest of the world. Broadly the same principles apply between England & Wales and Hong Kong when dividing assets and awarding maintenance, but other factors will play into needs-driven outcomes, such as the cost of living, parties’ abilities to work (e.g. visa issues), and access to the courts (Hong Kong grants jurisdiction where parties have a “substantial connection” at the date of petition/application, England & Wales operates a more stringent test).

This was such an interesting chat Kyra, thank you so much for your time.  We look forward to having you on board again to discuss other interesting and key topics in the area of matrimonial law!

About Kyra: 

Kyra is a barrister at 1 Hare Court in London, England.  Kyra specializes in financial remedies, claims after foreign divorce, nuptial agreements and jurisdiction disputes.  She is a member of the Family Law Barrister Association (FLBA) and the Inner Temple.

Kyra is described as a “a star in the marking, super clever, slick, elegant and professional” and “a smiling assassin” by both clients and peers.

Kyra’s practice is concentrated on high profile and international matrimonial cases, specifically issues dealing with forum disputes, cases with international trust and company structures, cases with complex issues of enforcement, issues of privilege and cases involving the enforcement of nuptial agreements. She regularly represents husbands and wives in high value and prominent matters, both led and alone in the High Court. She advises clients nationally and internationally, from jurisdictions including the Cayman Islands, Singapore and France, and has a particular interest in cases with links to Hong Kong, having undertaken the Pegasus Scholarship there in 2017.

Kyra is a contributing author of Rayden and Jackson on Divorce and Matrimonial Matters, a comprehensive and key guide for family law practitioners

For more information about Kyra and her practice, you can visit her Chambers’ website:




Parental Child Abduction In Divorce

Hong Kong is home to many expatriates and in a divorce, the issue of where a child will reside and grow up after a divorce is a distinct area of discussion among parents.  Whilst the majority of parents do come to an agreeable conclusion as to a child’s future place of residence, there are those few highly litigious cases when removal of a child from the jurisdiction of Hong Kong can occur without the permission of one parent and without leave of the court.

When this occurs, it comes within the realm of parental child abduction and the courts take this very seriously as many countries are members of the Hague Convention; a multilateral treaty developed by the Hague Conference on Private International Law and which provides an expeditious method to return a child internationally abducted by a parent from one member country to another.  Hong Kong is a member of the Hague Convention and The Child Abduction and Custody Ordinance (Cap. 512)(CACO) was enacted on 5th September 1997 to give effect to the Convention in Hong Kong.  It is important to note that the People’s Republic of China itself is not a contracting state to the Convention, but yet Macau, another Special Administrative Region is.  Thus, at this time there is no mechanism in place between Hong Kong, Macau and Mainland China for the return of abducted children to China.

Parental Child Abduction In Divorce 9

In Hong Kong, removal occurs when a child who was previously in the country of his/her habitual residence is taken away to another country.  Retention occurs where a child who has previously been for a limited period of time outside the country of its habitual residence, is not returned on the expiry of that limited period.

In the event that you are concerned that your ex-spouse may unilaterally remove a child from the jurisdiction of Hong Kong, there are steps you can take to prevent this from occurring:

First and foremost, speak with a family law solicitor to discuss the filing of an application to restrict the removal of the child from Hong Kong.  This application should be made within the main divorce suit and can be made on an ex parte basis, which is essentially an emergency hearing.  If you are successful in obtaining an order restricting the removal of a child, be sure to speak to your solicitor about ensuring this order is adhered to including providing a copy of the removal restriction order to Hong Kong’s Immigration Department who will then have notice of this removal restriction should your ex-spouse attempt to leave Hong Kong with your child.

Parental Child Abduction In Divorce 10

If you believe that your ex is plotting to remove your child from Hong Kong, be prepared and take preventative measures such as notifying your child’s teachers, babysitters and other caretakers of a possible threat.  Record any and all threats made by your ex-spouse and keep updated photos of your child.  Gather all documents related to your child such as passports and birth records and make sure you have copies of all documents and that the originals are safely stored in a secured place, accessible only by you. It may also be worthwhile to keep the lines of communication open between you and your ex-spouse, as it may help reduce any potential flight risks that you may be concerned about.

If your ex-spouse has already left Hong Kong with your child without your permission and/or without the leave of the court, it is imperative that you take immediate steps including the following:

  1. Contact Police: Contact local authorities to report parental child abduction. This is especially important if you are concerned about the safety and well-being of your child and/or you’re concerned that your ex-spouse will be going into hiding with your child.
  2. Seek Legal Counsel: As this is a situation which requires immediate attention, get into contact with a solicitor who can assist you with the return of your child.  You will want a solicitor who is well-versed in Hague Convention related matters and one who has previously successfully obtained the return of a child from a foreign jurisdiction.  Once a child is taken out of Hong Kong, there are many hurdles a parent must go through and if you are not properly armed with an outstanding legal team, it will be that much more difficult.  If you are concerned about the whereabouts and well-being of your child, it is very important to keep your solicitor apprised of all communications with your ex-spouse and your child.
  3. Make An Application: Once you have reached out to your solicitor, he/she may suggest that you file an application for the return of your child, but may also suggest that you make a request directly to the Secretary for Justice by filling in the necessary paperwork from the Department of Justice.
  4. Do Your Own Research About The Hague Convention Treaty: Read up on The Hague Convention Treaty and become familiar with it so that you are knowledgeable about what situation you are dealing with.  Not all countries are part of the Hague convention so it is vitally important to initially determine whether the country holding your child is a party to the treaty.  Do your research and do not be afraid to ask your attorney tough questions about how the Hague Convention Treaty will affect your case and the likelihood of success of having your child return to Hong Kong.

It is important to note that a court will have discretion to refuse the return of a child to Hong Kong.  The courts will consider factors such as consent, acquiescence in a removal, grave risk for a child’s return both to physical or psychological harm and/or the court may even consider a child’s maturity and his/her views about a return.

If you are the parent who wishes to remove your child from the jurisdiction of Hong Kong, the route is of course is to go through the legal system which includes negotiating and resolving issues related to child custody and access in your divorce case through mediation or having it resolved by a court order.  It is understandable however that many parents find this to be a frustrating process as the courts in Hong Kong are dealing with backlog of cases resulting in delay before there is an adjudication of matters and even then, one parent may not be happy with the result. It goes without saying however, that at no point should a parent take matters into their own hands and resort to parental abduction of a child which can have detrimental effects especially on a child.

Parental Child Abduction In Divorce 11

If you wish to remove your child from the jurisdiction of Hong Kong, speak to your solicitor about filing an application to remove your child permanently from the jurisdiction.  If you and your ex can agree, a consent summons can be filed with the court.  Remember, an ill-thought-out plan with little research and planning will not convince a judge that it is in a child’s best interest to be removed from the jurisdiction of Hong Kong.

Children’s Views In Divorce Proceedings

In litigated custody battles, clients frequently ask if their child can testify before the judge.  However tempting this is, there are many factors to consider before placing your child into the front lines of a bitter divorce battle.

In Hong Kong, family court judges are cautious and historically, children’s views are only accepted through a social welfare report and/or any expert evidence such as a child psychologist.  However, similar to what is being seen in the USA, Hong Kong courts are now recognizing the importance of a child’s view and it is being promoted.

Child Theft

In Hong Kong, as part of its obligations under Article 13 of the United Nations Convention on Rights of the Child, the court will acknowledge that where a child’s interests are affected, a child’s viewpoint can be taken into consideration if that child is capable of forming his/her own views whether it be in person or through a representative. In practice, a child’s viewpoint is taken in the form of the following:

  1. Judicial Interview: Under his/her own discretion, the judge may grant an interview and the mechanism for conducting an interview of a child. This interview is not for the purpose of gathering evidence (which is the responsibility of the social welfare report) but rather it is to enable a judge to listen to the views of a child.
  2. Appointment of Legal Representative for the child: This is similar to what has been seen in California cases where a minor’s counsel is appointed under California Family Code section 3151 which allows the appointment of an attorney to look after a child’s best interests.  Here in Hong Kong, the appointment of a legal representative for a child is pursuant to Rule 72 and 108 of the Matrimonial Causes Rules and the purpose is to reflect a child’s interests and not necessarily a child’s wishes.  A legal representative for a child is not an automatic right and an unlikely appointment if a child’s view is adequately reflected and evidenced in a report before the court.

Whether a judge will allow your child’s views to be heard or not is dependent on a number of factors including: whether a child is suffering from harm due to access disputes; cases which are exceptionally difficult and involve foreign elements such as immigration or removal; an older child is opposing a proposed course of action; where there may be parental alienation from one or both of the parents; cultural and/or religious differences affecting a child; complex medical/mental health issues that need to be determined; serious allegations of physical, and mental or sexual abuse or in circumstances where neither parent seem to be suitable guardians.

Divorce matters affecting Children

Before a consideration is made with respect to allowing your child to testify or express his/her views to a court, you may want to ponder upon the following:

  1. Is Your Child’s Testimony Necessary? Ask yourself tough questions including why you want your child to testify.  What is the real reason?  Can your child truly assist the judge to  understand the circumstances in your home and how the custody arrangement is affecting your child? Generally speaking, there should be a strong reason behind having your child testify against the other parent rather than simply you wanting more custody time and/or harboring resentment/revenge against your ex-spouse.
  2. What Are The Long-Term Effects On Your Child? Consider the long-term effects testifying will have on your child.  A divorce is already a traumatizing experience for most children.  It is even worse if the parents are engaged in a bitter and litigated custody battle.  Consider factors such as whether it will be difficult for your child to testify because it will make him/her feel guilty for picking sides.  You need to consider the psychological effects this will have on your child and how it will affect his/her relationship with your ex-spouse.

Child's feelings in divorce

Remember that it is in your child’s best interests to have a healthy and communicative relationship with your ex-spouse, who is, after all, your child’s other parent.  Allowing your child to testify will undoubtedly affect the relationship dynamic between you and your ex-spouse and your child.  Also, try and determine why your child is expressing an interest in testifying.

In making any decision relating to your child, be sure to focus on what is in your child’s best interests and the right decision will follow.

Spotlight Profile: Madeleine Booth, Barrister at Bernacchi Chambers

In this Spotlight Profile, we are talking to Madeleine Booth, Barrister at Bernacchi Chambers in Hong Kong.  Madeleine was recently named as one of the leading family and divorce law barristers in Hong Kong for 2021 by Doyles Guide.

Over the next year, we will touch base with Madeleine to discuss various hot topics in the area of matrimonial law and delve deeper into each subject and gain insight from her, as a barrister with expertise in the family law arena.

Madeleine, we spoke to you in September 2019 (pre-Covid) and you gave us a great rundown and overview of your work as a barrister in Hong Kong, pointing out the differences between a barrister and solicitor and the work that you do.  Can you tell us how you have been since pre-Covid days and whether you have seen any changes in the matrimonial sector since the Covid-19 pandemic? 

Since the last occasion, there’s certainly been a shift in the matrimonial sector as a consequence of the pandemic. To give just two key examples, there’s firstly been an unforeseeable, dramatic impact to various industries, which has had a knock-on effect on people’s income and perhaps even resulted in one or both spouses losing their job. Due to this, there’s been a marked increase in applications for variation of maintenance (monthly sums payable from one spouse to another, and/or for the benefit of the children of the family), as payments are no longer affordable or sustainable, either because of the loss of a job or a dramatic cut to an individual’s income.

Secondly, the situation caused by the pandemic has generally been a stressful, demanding time for families; both parents and children alike in many respects, and for a drawn out, extended period of time. Tensions and frustrations, exacerbated by limitations on travel and economic pressures, have led to fractures in marriages and co-parenting difficulties that have reportedly led to an increase in applications to the Family Court, whether it be for divorce, custody applications, relocation applications, or other relief. Unfortunately, the rise in cases coupled with the Family Court’s reduced operations for several months due to Covid-19 has resulted in an increase in delays for hearings. However, the judiciary is now working harder than ever to help clear the “backlog” caused.

What types of matrimonial disputes are you seeing more of with the changing social and economic climate in Hong Kong with the Covid-19 pandemic?  Do you anticipate any changes post-Covid?

As I alluded to earlier, there’s been an increase in variation of maintenance and interim maintenance applications, meaning requests by one spouse to (generally) reduce the amount of periodic payments made by them to the other spouse and/or paid for the benefit of the children of the family. This is usually due to a change in the applicant spouse’s earnings or sudden loss of work. Hand in hand with this is the rise in enforcement procedures as, when one party can no longer afford to pay, they begin defaulting on payments as they fall due. As a result, the other spouse may take out an application to enforce these arrears of payments, whether it be by an Order 45 Rule 6 application, judgment summons procedure, or seeking a prohibition order (which prevents a party from leaving Hong Kong until the sum owed is paid).

I would also say that there’s been a rise in relocation applications, where one spouse wishes to leave Hong Kong and relocate to another jurisdiction with the children of the family. Again, these cases are on the rise because of the global shift in socio-economic environments caused by the pandemic. A party may need to relocate because of the loss of work opportunities in Hong Kong and the better prospects of work in another country. If a party loses their job, Hong Kong may no longer be affordable and they may need to relocate back to their country of origin to seek familial support, or where costs of living are lower, or for education opportunities/better quality of life for their children.

It’s been predicted that Covid-19 is here to stay for the foreseeable future. It is uncertain at present what changes will occur once the pandemic is brought under control, but hopefully greater stability for families in Hong Kong.

We want to continue our discussions with you on several hot topics in the area of matrimonial law, which we will do over the course of this upcoming year.  To begin our series discussing hot topics in matrimonial law, let’s first tackle an area of great interest for those living in Hong Kong: marital agreements.

In Hong Kong, marital agreements are taken into consideration by the courts, but it’s not a guarantee that it will be followed.  Do you see that changing going forward, especially as other jurisdictions rely heavily on these types of agreements?

There have been no developments that would suggest that the interpretation of marital agreements in Hong Kong will change in the foreseeable future. Hong Kong often looks to other commonwealth jurisdictions, predominantly the United Kingdom, when considering evolutions in the law. The shift in Hong Kong’s approach to marital agreements followed the 2010 landmark decision of Radmacher v Granatino [2010] UKSC 42, in the UK (adopted in Hong Kong in the Court of Final Appeal decision SPH v SA (2014) 17 HKCFAR 364).

Currently, the approach to marital agreements in Hong Kong is that, whilst the Court is not obliged to give effect to nuptial agreements, they should give weight to them in circumstances where it is fair to do so. What will be considered “fair” depends on the facts of the particular case. In appropriate cases, the Court will hold the parties to their agreement and will not impose terms that it would otherwise have ordered were it not for the agreement. This is consonant with the current approach of the Courts in England.

Do Hong Kong courts take into consideration cross-jurisdiction agreements?  For example, what happens if an individual who is married overseas, moves to Hong Kong and subsequently gets divorced in Hong Kong and a marital agreement prepared and signed overseas is at the center of the dispute?

The same considerations would apply to a nuptial agreement whichever jurisdiction it is made in. The Hong Kong Family Court will consider whether it is fair to give the agreement weight in accordance with the principles set out in Radmacher, including but not limited to (1) whether the parties to the agreement were properly advised; (2) whether there was full financial disclosure prior to the signing of the agreement; (3) whether there was any duress exerted on one of the parties to sign the agreement; and (4) whether any unforeseen circumstances have arisen since the agreement that would render it unjust to hold the parties to it.

Have you ever had to argue before the Courts in Hong Kong regarding a marital agreement dispute?  In order to avoid future disputes with respect to marital agreements, what tips or advice can you give to those entering into these types of marital agreements? 

Yes, I have been involved in cases regarding marital agreement disputes. A nuptial agreement is generally more likely to be accorded weight if it can be shown to be both substantively and procedurally fair. Three foundational suggestions in respect of pre-nuptial agreements would be as follows:

  • Discuss the terms of the nuptial agreement well in advance of the marriage date (at least 28 days if not longer), which will assist in demonstrating that there was no duress or pressure on either party to sign the agreement in a hurry before the wedding date.
  • Both parties should receive independent legal advice (the parties cannot share one lawyer to advise them) on the agreement and should enter into it with full understanding and appreciation of its terms.
  • There should be sufficient disclosure to illustrate that the agreement was an informed decision.

It is very important to seek legal advice for a nuptial agreement from a qualified solicitor to ensure that its terms are substantively fair to both parties.

Thank you so much Madeleine for all your insight into this important topic.  We look forward to speaking to you again to discuss other key topics of interest!

About Madeleine: 

Spotlight Profile: Madeleine Booth, Barrister at Bernacchi Chambers 12

Madeleine’s practice encompasses both civil and criminal law, with a particular specialization in matrimonial work. Madeleine was recently named as one of the leading family and divorce law barristers in Hong Kong for 2021 by Doyles Guide.

In the Family Court, Madeleine has experience in contested financial and child related matters, and family related company and trust cases.

Having represented clients at Financial Dispute Resolution hearings, Children’s Dispute Resolution hearings, as well as at trial for preliminary issues (third party interests/property/companies), financial issues (MPS applications, ancillary relief trials) and child related matters (such as custody disputes, and applications under the Guardianship of Minors Ordinance), Madeleine’s experience is broad.

Madeleine is often called upon to make applications under s.17 of the MPPO, setting aside dispositions or applying for injunctions, on an urgent basis.

Madeleine also has experience in a number of other areas of legal practice, including civil litigation and criminal law. She has assisted senior counsel, and acted as sole legal counsel, in multiple hearings and trials at each level of court in Hong Kong, from its magistracies to the Court of Final Appeal. Madeleine appears in the High Court of Hong Kong regularly with respect to civil litigation matters, including trust related cases, injunctions, torts of harassment, intimidation, and unlawful means conspiracy, as well as summary judgment applications.

Madeleine’s experience extends beyond advocacy to include providing written opinions and legal advice, as well as assisting in mediations and arbitrations.

Misconduct In Divorce

In what will be considered one of the most stressful times in an individual’s life, it is no surprise that many people behave badly during a divorce. It is a stressful life event, that many reckon to be on par with the death of a family member.  With that being said, it is important that if you are going through a divorce, your conduct throughout the proceedings is important and it could have an impact on your divorce.  To behave poorly is a reflection not only on your character but also affects the actual outcome of your divorce.

Misconduct In Divorce 13

In a divorce, your conduct in the course of proceedings can be taken into account by the judge, although generally speaking misconduct during the proceedings is more properly dealt with in an adverse application for costs against you.

What are some examples of “bad behaviour” and misconduct in a divorce? Wanton dissipation/reckless dissipation of assets is one form of misconduct.  In KMD v PIB [2011] HKFLR 351, the husband was excessively spending on his lifestyle as well as his hobby of flying helicopters and this was taken into account by the court, resulting in HK$1.2 million being “added back” from his 50% shares into the matrimonial pot for division.  In MKKWH v RKSH [2013] HKFLR 540, the husband maintained three (3) other families over a period of years and post-separation the wife sought to add back an equivalent sum of monies that her husband had spent on his other families.  In this case, the Court of Appeal refused the wife’s application to add back these funds on the basis that the funds had been received post-separation. In A v B [2017] 1 HKLRD 187, the court held that payments to a girlfriend of HK$1.2 million was “wanton” and “reckless” and “extravagant” in view of the marital assets and the standard of living, and the court therefore added back into the matrimonial pot, the non-marital spending.

Misconduct In Divorce 14

Material non-disclosure is another form of misconduct in litigation such as monies being hidden.  In SANK v PGN [2011] HKFLR 390, the court considered whether a husband’s non-disclosure and refusal to mediate should result in a costs award to the wife.  The court concluded that “[t]here are many reasons which may affect the court in considering costs, such as culpability in the conduct of the litigation; for instance material non-disclosure of documents.”  Parties to a divorce have a duty of full and frank disclosure and by failing to disclose, the courts will take this misconduct into consideration.

Misconduct In Divorce 15

Another form of misconduct is a refusal to attempt to settle. In LWF v LMF [2015] HKFC 146, the wife’s failure to respond and attempt to negotiate was a relevant factor for the husband being awarded costs.  The same misconduct label is also attached to litigants who refuse to provide evidence and/or participate in proceedings such as filing necessary paperwork and/or attending court hearings.  By refusing to participate, the court will have no choice but to see the case as one-sided and only make decisions based on the actual evidence in front of the court.

Misconduct In Divorce 16

The courts in Hong Kong have a duty to have regard to the conduct of the parties to a marriage.  Negative marital conduct can be detailed in sworn affidavits filed with the court and will be considered by the court as a material factor in allowing the court to depart from equality (See LKW v DD). However, it is to be noted that if there is a departure from equality, the courts will look for “obvious and gross” misconduct for it to be taken into account.